Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan. Canetti, Daphna. Rapaport, Carmit. Hobfoll,E.Stevan (2014) Conflict will Harden your Heart: Exposure to Violence, Psychological Distress, and Peace Barriers in Israel and Palestine. British Journal of Political Science
Does exposure to political violence prompt civilians to support peace? We investigate the determinants of civilian attitudes towards peace during ongoing conflict using two original panel datasets representing Israelis (n=996) and Palestinians in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza (n=631) (149 communities in total). A multi-group estimation analysis shows that individual-level exposure to terrorism and political violence makes the subject populations less likely to support peace efforts. The findings also confirm psychological distress and threat perceptions as the mechanism bridging exposure to violence and greater militancy over time. The study breaks ground in showing that individual-level exposure—necessarily accompanied by psychological distress and threat perceptions—is key to understanding civilians' refusal to compromise in prolonged conflict
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