Hall BJ, Saltzman LY, Canetti D, Hobfoll SE (2015) A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth in a Cohort of Israeli Jews and Palestinians during Ongoing Violence. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0124782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124782
Meta-analytic evidence based on cross-sectional investigations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrates that the two concepts are positively related and that ethnic minorities report greater PTG. Few longitudinal studies have quantified this relationship so the evidence is limited regarding the potential benefit PTG may have on post-traumatic adjustment and whether differences between ethnic groups exist. 
The current study attempts to fill a substantial gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptom clusters longitudinally using a nationally representative cohort of 1613 Israelis and Palestinian Citizens of Israel (PCI) interviewed via telephone on three measurement occasions during one year. Latent cross-lagged structural models estimated the relationship between PTG and each PTSD symptom cluster, derived from confirmatory factor analysis, representing latent and statistically invariant PTSD symptom factors, best representing PTSD for both ethnic groups.
PTG was not associated with less PTSD symptom severity in any of the four PTSD clusters, for Jews and PCI. In contrast, PTSD symptom severity assessed earlier was related to later reported PTG in both groups.
This study demonstrates that PTSD symptoms contribute to greater reported PTG, but that PTG does not provide a salutatory benefit by reducing symptoms of PTSD
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