Katie, J. Chipman, Palmieri, Patrick Canetti, Daphna, Johnson, J. Robert, Hobfoll, E. Stevan (2011). Predictors of posttraumatic stress-related impairment in victims of terrorism and ongoing conflict in Israel. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping 24(3), 255-271. 
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported impairment (Criterion F) as part of a probable DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 1001 Israeli Jews subjected to direct and indirect exposure to rocket attacks.
Further, the present study aimed to investigate predictors of endorsing posttraumatic stress (PTS)-related impairment, with specific attention to the influence of resources and resource loss. Data were collected via phone surveys. Twenty-nine percent of the sample reported impairment; however, only 19% of those reporting impairment met criteria for probable PTSD.
Logistic regression results indicated that psychosocial resource losses, experiencing personal injury or injury to a family member or close friend, experiencing other major life stressors in the past year, having poorer health, having significant sleep difficulty, and having traditional (moderate) religious practices, significantly predicted PTS-related impairment.
Results suggest that addressing impairment only within the context of full PTSD misses many individuals experiencing significant PTS-related impairment.
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