Ben-Dor, Gabriel. Pedahzur, Ami. Canetti-Nisim, Daphna. Zaidise, Eran. Perliger, Arie. Bermanis, Shai (2008). "I vs. We: Collective and Individual Factors of Reserve Service Motivation during War and Peace." Armed Forces & Society 34 (4), 565-592.
This study examines conditions of peace and war to find whether the “rally ‘round the flag” effect is indeed attributed to rising levels of social collectivism. Reserve service motivation in peacetime and wartime was compared among 1,004 Israeli reservists. Levels of motivation and the factors that affect them were examined during the optimism of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process (February 2000) and about a year and a half into the second Intifada (October 2000). Findings suggest that motivation to serve in wartime is indeed higher than in peacetime. However, they also suggest that similar factors predict motivation in both times, although their relative impact is altered by the situation. Reservists were more likely to be motivated by individual rather than collective incentives (in both peacetime and wartime situations), thus suggesting that “rally ‘round the flag” occurrences are not necessarily reflective of the social cohesion and collective reasoning.